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GREEK EDUCATION                         3

more indirect influence of Judaism, whether exercised through
the educational ideas of the Old Testament or through the
Christian view of individual and social life, needed to be trans-
muted into Greek forms before making itself felt among the
forces which have determined the character of European educa-
tion. It is therefore with ancient Greece that our survey of
educational history must begin.


During the last five or six centuries of the second millenium
before our era various tribes of Aryan stock poured down from
Central Europe into Greece in successive waves of invasion.
Some, like the Norsemen of a later day, seem to have come
sailing along the coast and to have established themselves in
small bands in such centres as Mycenae and Troy, The ascend-
ancy of these adventurers was probably achieved by comparatively
peaceful methods, and resulted in their partial assimilation by the
people over whom they gained authority. The main bodies,
coming overland in greater numbers and retaining more com-
pletely their original tribal organization, made a more thorough
conquest, and succeeded in imposing not only their rule but their
language on the country. Even in the latter case, however, the
previous inhabitants were not wholly driven out or exterminated,
In those districts of Greece farthest removed from the source of
invasion, like Attica, they continued to form the majority of the
population, while in other districts, like Laconia, they were
sufficiently numerous to be able to retain a condition of semi-
independence outside the cities of their conquerors* But their
civilisation, which was similar in character to that of the rest of
the JEgean lands, and notably to that of Crete, gradually went
down before the repeated onsets of the invading hosts, only
leaving enough of its culture behind to make easier the rise of the
new civilisation that was to come from the fusion of northern and
southern races*

The barbarian invasions came to an end with the immigration
of the Dorians in the course of the Eleventh Century before
Christ, Then followed three centuries which have not inaptly
been called the Dark Ages of Greece, Little is known about
them* But by the end of them great changes had taken place*